In short, cannabinoids are a class of chemical compounds that occur naturally within cannabis plants (phytocannabinoids) and the human body (endocannabinoids).  When phytocannabinoids interact with the human endocannabinoid system, they have various physiological effects. While THC is the most well known of the cannabinoids, there are actually over 100 different cannabinoids present within the cannabis plant. Therapeutically, different cannabinoids have different therapeutic benefits and affect the body in different ways.  



Each cannabinoid is unique in its medicinal potential, and some rely upon the “entourage effect” to be really effective for a particular condition. While research into the various cannabinoids, and their therapeutic efficacy and application is still ongoing, researchers have learned that cannabinoids, as a group, hold great promise within the field of medicine.

While we know that cannabinoids carry general anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, researchers are also discovering more specific applications. For example, studies performed over the past decades have led scientists to believe that cannabinoids hold promise in the treatment of epilepsy, seizures, diabetes, cancer, arthritis, migraines, Parkinson’s Disease, MS, Insomnia, Neurodegenerative diseases, Anxiety, PTSD, nausea, and gastrointestinal issues, among others.  Needless to say, research into cannabinoids as medicine is certain to be exciting over the coming years.


THC-Δ9: The most well known and abundant compound in cannabis, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), is primarily responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis. Clinically, THC-Δ9 has been shown to minimize chemotherapy induced nausea and stimulate appetite in patients with wasting due to AIDS.

THC-Δ8: While similar to THC-Δ9, Delta-8-THC (delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol) has a lower psychotropic potency, and has been found to connect to both CB1 and CB2 receptors in our bodies. Medicinally, this cannabinoid has been shown to completely prevent vomiting in children being treated with various chemotherapy drugs.

THCA: THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid) is a non-psychotropic cannabinoid found in cannabis. Once exposed to heat, sunlight, or time, the THCA in the harvested plant converts to THC. Medicinally, THCA is particularly useful for reducing nausea, seizures, and muscle spasms, as well as fighting tumor and cancer cells.

THCV: Not unlike Δ9-THC,  tetrahydrocannabivarin, has psychoactive properties. Unlike Δ9-THC, THCV is an appetite suppressant and may be used in weight loss. Additionally, THCV shows promise in its ability to regulate blood sugar levels, reduce anxiety, stimulate bone growth, and reduce tremors and brain lesions. 

THCVA: The molecular precursor to THCV, (THCVA) Tetrahydrocannabivarin acid is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that may act as an anti-inflammatory, and possibly help regulate the immune system. Additionally, THCVA holds promise as a pain reliever and is a key contributor to the potential anti-cancer properties offered by cannabinoids.

CBD: An excellent treatment for anxiety, CBD is also an anti-psychotic which makes it a promising psychiatric alternative. CBD has also been shown to reduce or eliminate seizures and fight the growth of tumor and cancer cells in addition to acting as a neuroprotectant, reducing muscle spasms, pain, and inflammation.

CBDA: CBDA (Cannabidiolic acid) is the acidic parent of CBD found in the raw plant, meaning that it converts to CBD when it is exposed to heat, light, or time. A non-psychoactive cannabinoid, CBDA shows promise as an anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsant, anti-nausea, and analgesic. CBDA may also have antioxidant, and cancer preventing properties.

CBDV: Cannabidivarin (CBDV) is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid and is most commonly found in indica strains of cannabis that are lower in THC. Like CBD, CBDV has the potential to decrease the frequency and severity of seizures. Additionally, it shows therapeutic promise in the reduction and/or elimination of nausea, inflammation, and pain and mood 

CBDVA: Like CBD, Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA), is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid. An effective anti-inflammatory, this cannabinoid may also reduce anxiety, pain and muscle tension as well as stimulate the appetite.

CBC: Found only in small amounts within the cannabis plant, CBC (Cannabichromene) has been shown to bind to the TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors, which are responsible for pain perception, making it a powerful pain reducer. Additionally, CBC may have anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, anti-fungal, and anti-cancer properties.

CBCA: The parent cannabinoid of CBC, when heated or aged, CBCA (Cannabichromenic Acid), produces CBC, CBL, and CBLA. While CBCA was once thought to carry little or no therapeutic value, more recent research has shown it to carry anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory properties.

CBCV: A non-psychotropic cannabinoid, CBCV (Cannabichromevarin) can be found in small amounts within the cannabis plant. While more research is needed to determine the full medicinal potential of CBCV, it is believed to hold analgesic, anti-depressant, and anticonvulsant benefits similar to CBC.


CBCVA: CBCVA (Cannabichromevarinic acid), is one of the major non-psychotropic compounds found in cannabis. Therapeutically, the potential usefulness of CBCVA is broad as it has been shown to target the receptors in our bodies that help to regulate sleep, appetite, and mood.

CBN: A mildly psychoactive cannabinoid known for its powerful sedative properties, Cannabinol (CBN) is a breakdown product of THC. As harvested cannabis ages, THC is gradually converted to CBN. While particularly useful for aiding sleep, CBN can also be used in the reduction of pain and muscle spasms.

CBG: A non-intoxicating cannabinoid, CBG (Cannabigerol) is present in small amounts in most cannabis strains. While more research is called for, CBG is showing promise as neuroprotectant, anti-cancer agent, and anti-bacterial in the treatment of MRSA.

CBGV: A non-psychoactive cannabinoid, researchers believe that CBGV, or Cannabigerovarin, may help the human endocannabinoid system better bind with THC molecules and increase CBD metabolism. Additionally, CBGV is considered to be an effective pain reliever, anti-inflammatory, and cancer inhibitor.

CBGA: A non-psychotropic cannabinoid, CBGA (cannabigerolic acid) can be found in small amounts within the cannabis plant. While more research is needed to determine the medicinal potential of CBGA, it is believed to have anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties.

CBGVA: CBGVA (Cannabigerovarinic Acid), is one of the major non-psychotropic compounds found in cannabis. Therapeutically, CBGVA is known to contain anti-inflammatory properties which may be useful for arthritis and other inflammatory issues.